Introduction

» The pomegranate or Punica granatum (Latin name) is, together with the fig, one of the most interesting and well-known of all historic fruits with a lot of interesting history and mythology around them.

» The pomegranate grows as large as a shrub or small tree and is normally deciduous in colder areas. They have shiny lanceolate leaves and the branches are often thorny.  The flowers are normally range from orange to red in colour.  It bears male flowers as well as hermaphrodite flowers from  which the pomegranate fruit develop.

» Similar to the fig, it is also considered by some historians that pomegranates were the forbidden fruit of the Garden of Eden.

» The first domestication of the pomegranate is believed to have started in Persia some 4000 years ago.

» It was grown in Ancient Egypt since 1500 B.C. and was seen as a symbol of prosperity, ambition and fertility. The fruit was also buried with the deceased as a symbol of hope of rebirth.

» It is also mentioned in scriptures of all the major religions of the world with various important symbolisms and traditions associated with it.

» In the Middle East the pomegranate is seen as a symbol of fertility, abundance and prosperity.

» In Christianity the pomegranate is seen as a symbol of the resurrection of Christ.

Origin of Pomegranates

» Pomegranates originated from the Middle East and Eastern Asia(Persia). It was introduced to many other areas with similar climates worldwide.

» The birth place of the pomegranate is seen as the Kopet Dag Mountains of Central Asia and wild pomegranates can still be found there today.

» Since pomegranates and figs originate roughly from the same area we like to see them respectedly as the "King" and "Queen" of all fruits.

Types of Pomegranates

» Wild pomegranates are often very thorny with thick hard skin. The arils(fleshy red coated seeds inside the fruit) are hard-seeded with a sweet sour taste. There are many natural variations.

» Ornamental pomegranates are mostly grown for their flowers and most seldom produce any fruit. They are called flowering pomegranates and colours vary from white, cream, orange, red and also bi colours. There are also dwarf varieties available.

» Fruit producing pomegranates grown for consumption are classified into the following groups:

| Hard-seeded
| Semi-hard seeded
| Soft seeded.

These three groups are then further classfied as sour, sweet-sour or sweet.

There are hundreds of cultivars available but only a few are planted commercially.

Why Plant Pomegranates

» Pomegranates are tough, easy to grow and very rewarding.

» They are well-known for their great health and healing properties (see special section further down).

» Nothing beats the satisfaction of growing your own, freshly picked pomegranates.

» They are heat and drought resistant and use less water than other fruit crops.

» Fresh pomegranates are relatively expensive to purchase and not readily available.

» They also make great small ornamental trees for any garden.

» They are ancient and have a lot of soul. Some people plant them to bring prosperity and good health.

Health Benefits

» No other fruit has more powerful anti-oxidants, vitamins and nutrient dense minerals than the pomegranate. Various studies can prove its health benefits.

» Ancient civilizations often used pomegranates to heal almost every health problem they had to deal with.

» Pomegranates contain a powerful and unique anti-oxidant called "punicalagin".

» It will inhibit the growth of cancer and tumors especially breast, prostrate, colon and leukemia.

» It gives excellent immune support.

» It benefits heart and blood vesels by lowering cholesterol and blood pressure and also helps clear heart blockages.

» It increases bonemass and helps with osteosporosis.

» It is said to improve brain functions and memory.

» It helps with stomach upsets and improves diabetes.

» It can help ease and normalise the nervous system and it is used against radiation sickness.

» Aids with Aging, Alzheimer's, Diarrhea, Liver Fibrosis, wound healing and improves appetite.

» Various studies are still ongoing about all the other health benefits of pomegranates.

The Story about Dr. Gregory Levin

» Dr. Levin,a Russian-born botanist, worked at the Garrygala Agricultural Station in Turkmenistan from 1961 until 2000.

» Dr. Levin specialized in the the genus Punica and most of his research was done at the research station.

» The station was funded by the then Soviet Union as Turkmenistan was one of it's republics.

» The research station was perfectly situated in a protected valley surrounded by the nearby Kopet Dag mountains. It was protected from the hot dessert summers and the worst of the cold winters.

» He collected and planted 1117 living specimens of pomegranate plants from 27 countries on four continents at the station.

» Dr. Levin is seen today as the world's foremost authority on pomegranates, the genus "Punica" and he has experience of more than 40 years in this field.

» It was the largest gene pool collection of pomegranates on the planet.

» Numerous studies was done on these plants and certain strains were selected for further development in agriculture. Some new varieties were also developed by him here. More than 300 scientific papers were written about the topic by him.

» After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 things slowly started to detiorate and funding for the station also dwindled and stopped.

» Because of lack of funding, irrigation of the orchards became impossible. Special selected trees were watered by hand. Many trees died because of the drought.

» In 2002 the newly elected Government ordered the orchards to be destroyed and to be replaced with vegetable research. Luckily Dr. Levin manage to send cuttings of the most important variants to the University of California, Davis and Ben Gurian University of the Negev in Israel.

» This selfless act ensured that valueable new genes and varieties of pomegranates were made avaialble to the rest of the world. Some of the varieties are already grown commercially in many countries around the world.

» Unable to face the destruction of all his hard work over the past 40 years he decided to leave the station and retired in Israel.

» Barbara Baer, an editor at Florean Press "discovered" Dr. Levin and encougared him to write his books and revealed to the world the amazing work he has put into the Pomegranate.

» He is the Author of "Pomegranate" and also his autobiography "Pomegrante Roads:A Soviet Botanist Exile from Eden."

» Many thanks to this great botanist for all his hard work, dedication and for making many new varieties available to the rest of the world!

Climatic Requirements

» Pomegranates come from areas with long, sunny and hot summers with low humidity and short cool winters.

» They do very well in Mediterranean type environments.

» Pomegranates will do well in most suburban gardens of South Africa, especially if the right variety is chosen.

» The most constricting factors for commercial pomegranate production are areas with too high humidity and rainfall during summer or areas that receive severe frost during winter.

» Furthermore, pomegranates are senstive to wind and extremely windy areas should be avoided.

» Pomegranates can tolerate moderate frost (around -5°C) very well but trouble starts when severe frost(around -10°C) occurs on a regular basis. Frost resistance varies greatly from variety to variety and is also dependant on the age of the tree (see special section on Frost).

» The top commercial growing areas for pomegranates are in the inland areas of the Western Cape.

» Poor quality pomegranates are produced if it rains too much during their flowering time and also during ripening.

Position

» Pomegranates need as much sun as they can get so that they can produce quality and abundant fruit.

» They, however, also tolerate semi-shade but at the expense of the fruit.

» One great advantage is that they don't have invasive and strong roots and thus make excellent trees for small gardens. The generally have shallow, spreading roots.

» Give your tree as much air circulation as possible but avoid areas exposed to strong winds.

» Pomegranates don't like areas that are too windy as their branches break easily and the fruit bruises and damages as well.

» In areas which experience severe frost, it is best to plant your tree against a warm, north facing wall that bakes in the sun all day long.

» Avoid planting your pomegranates near large trees as this negatively affects their growth.

Planting of New Trees

When to plant?

» If trees are purchased as established container grown plants, they can be transplanted any time of the year except in regions that experience severe frost.

» In areas with severe frost it is best to plant only once all danger of frost has passed (normally after mid September).

» If you purchase barerooted trees or wish to transplant trees that are already established, you can only do this during the dormant period (usually June to mid August).

Spacing?

» Allow your tree at least a clear area of roughly 4m x 4m to fully develop.

» If you are planting an orchard, the spacing should be at least 4m apart in the rows and about 5-6m between the rows.

How to plant?

» Choose your position carefully as previously discussed.

» Make the planting hole twice the size of the bag or at least 50cm x 50cm x 50cm (deep and wide).

» Fill the hole with water to the brink and wait for all the water to drain away.

» Mix 500 grams of bonemeal (or 250grams of superphosphate), 500grams of Bioganic Fertilizer and half a bag of compost(15dm) with the soil that was removed from the hole.

» Throw some of this mixture back into the hole until it is filled enough so that the new pomegranate plant can be planted level to the surrounding soil. Fill the gaps with the rest of the mixed soil and compact firmly.

» Make a basin around the tree with the rest of the soil.

» It is very important to flood the basin with water so that the soil and new tree can settle and also to remove airpockets.

Aftercare:

» It will take about 3 months for your tree to settle in before it starts to grow strongly.

» Water your tree very well for the first month! At least every second day.

» Do not use any chemical fertilizer or strong manure when planting new plants. You can apply these later when the plant's roots have
become established(usually 3 months after planting).

» It is very important to ensure that weeding is done regularly around the stem. A thick mulch will keep weeds in check and the roots moist.

» Pomegranate trees should have a bed around them at all times. Do not allow your lawn to grow right up against the main trunk. The roots of the grass will compete with your pomegranate trees roots.

» Furthermore, a bed around your tree will ensure that the bark will not be damaged by lawnmowers and edge cutters. This is called ringbarking and many trees die annually because this is not done.

» The use of concrete tree rings is highly recommended and works very well in protecting the stems.

» Above: A well planned and maintained orchard.

Soil

» Pomegranates can adapt and be grown in a wide range of soils as long as there is adequate drainage.

» They, however, grow best in well drained, fertile, deep loam soil.

» They will grow well in moderate acid or alkaline soils.

» They tolerate a wide ph range of 4.5 - 8.2 but for best growth a ph level of 5.5 - 7.2 is required.

» One of the advantages of the Pomegranate is their salt tolerance.

» If they are grown in pots, use a good quality bark potting soil and improve drainage by filling the bottom with gravel.

Watering

» One of the great advantages of pomegranates is their tolerance of drought as they are considered "waterwise" plants.

» Although they tolerate severe drought, the harvest will of course be severely affected(fruit falling off or grow too small).

» Pomegranates like moist but not wet soil. It is important to try to maintain its level of soil moisture throughout the growing season as a drastic change in soil moisture often causes splitting of the fruit. It is, however, recommended to reduce watering when fruit start to ripen (normally from late summer).

» Do not water with sprinklers as water on the flowers and fruit can cause diseases and splitting.

» Drip irrigation systems are highly recommended. Alternatively, flood the rootzone with a hose.

» It is always better to give deep, thorough watering less often than frequent, almost daily watering.

» A rough guide(this depends on weather conditions) is to water at least twice a week roughly equal to 20mm of rain.

» Young plants up to the age of 3 years should be watered more.

» Pomegranates grown in sandy soils will need more watering and ones grown in clay soils will need less watering.

» The plants can be kept dry during the winter dormancy period.

» Pomegranates grown in bags or containers should never be allowed to dry out!

» Drip irrigation comes highly recommended as it is water usage efficient.

Feeding

» Once established, pomegranates will need very little feeding but this will depend on the local soil conditions.

» Pomegranates will need more feeding if grown in sandy or rocky soils.

» Pomegranates grown commercially will also need more but specialized feeding.

» Overfeeding, especially with high nitrogen fertilzers, can cause poor fruit production.

» Today there is a vast range of fertilizers available and each brand claims they are the best. There is not really a right or wrong kind of fertilizer or brand and I suppose it is all up to your personal preference and experience. I am going to recommend my own personal choices to you but remember there are many other feeding programmes and products that others swear by that also provide great results.

Feeding for young trees

» Young trees (less than three years) will need more feeding to help them grow and establish fast.

»Fertilizers high in Nitrogen, like Wonder 7.1.3 carbon based fertilizer, are recommended.

» The fertilizer should monthly be applied around the base of the tree and at least 30cm away from the main stem.

» About 50grams for each year of the tree is recommended but be very careful when using chemical fertilizers as too much can burn the plant. Always water very well immediately after application.

» I also like to monthly add some additional organic chicken pellets like Bioganic Fertilizer as well every month as this will keep the soil healthy and also provide micro elements.

» All feeding should be stopped at the end of February to start hardening off the plant before winter sets in.

Feeding mature pomegranates

» Mature trees (3 years or older) will need less feeding and they respond well to natural fertilizers.

» During late winter the tree should be mulched with compost mixed with bonemeal. You can also sprinkle some Bioganic fertilizer (about 1kg) around the tree.

» In spring, a once off application of Wonder 7.1.3 fertilizer is recommended as pomegranates use a lot of Nitrogen when forming new leaves.

» For the rest of the season, if needed, Wonder 2.3.4 fertilizer (at a rate of 50 grams per square meter) and/or Bioganic fertilizer (at a rate of 100grams per square meter) sprinkled around the tree monthly.

» All feeding should be stopped at the end of February to harden the tree off before winter sets in.

Pruning

» Pruning pomegranates is much easier than most other fruit bearing crops but there are a few things that you have to keep in mind. Before we begin please read the following section.

Some important tips:

» Main pruning should be done during the dormant period when all leaves have fallen off. The best time will be around end of July or just before spring.

» When removing secondary branches from the main trunks, always leave a short shoulder. Do not cut back right against the main trunk.

» Always use sharp pruning equipment. Clean cuts heal quickly.

» Avoid tearing and cracking stems when pruning.

» Always seal thicker cuts with pruning sealent (butimen) to keep out fungal diseases and boring insects.

» It is a good idea to spray the whole tree with Lime sulphur after pruning as this will eliminate any pests and diseases that might still be present on the tree.

» Ensure that thicker branches and the main trunk will have enough leave cover left to protect the bark from sunburn.

» Sun exposed bare trunks can be painted with white PVA paint to lessen sun damage.

» Try to cut with a slight angle just above the internodes(eyes) of the stems.

» Slower growing and dwarf varieties should only be pruned lightly.

» Pomegranates in pots should also only be ligthly pruned.

» Severe pruning can cause poor fruit production.

» Pomegranates normally start bearing fruit normally after 3 years of age on both older wood and the current year's wood.

 

Pruning young trees (3 years or younger)

» Young trees should not be pruned after their first year in the ground and should be left alone to establish first.

» In the second year you can start pruning the young tree. It is important to develop the correct main framework of the tree as this is difficult to rectify once it has matured.

» There are two pruning concepts which can be chosen when it comes to pomegranate growing:

 

Single stem

» With the single stem system, one main trunk is chosen the second year and the rest of the branches are cut off.

» Secondary branches are allowed to grow out of the main trunk from about 50cm - 1m above the ground level.

» The single stem method is recommended for commercial production in areas that experience little or no frost.

» With this method there is less maintenance work required when suckers are to be removed and weeding is also easier around a single stem.

» The single stem method allows the plant to be exposed to more sun and better air circulation than with a multi-stemmend bushy tree.

 

Multi-stem

» With the multi-stem system, the best 5-6 trunks are chosen in the second year and the rest are cut back to the ground.

» Secondary branches are allowed to grow from these trunks about 50cm - 1m above the ground.

» This method is advised for areas that experience heavy to severe frost during winter time.

» If severe frost does occur, normally one or two branches can die back. There will still be branches left that survive and will be able to produce fruit. With the single stem method the whole tree is lost and replaced with a lot of suckers.

» Furthermore, with the multi-stem method damaged, dead or unproducitve branches can be removed and replaced with new suckers while there is still other branches left that can produce fruit. With the single stem method the whole process of developing a new trunk must be done all over again.

» The following year (third) all strong, upright growing branches should be cut back so that new secondary branches can develop. All suckers from the base of the stems should be removed.

Mature trees (3 years or older)

» Mature trees should be easy to maintain if the correct forming techniques were followed when the tree was young.

» The main problem with pomegranates is that they constantly form new suckers at the base of the framework whether it is single or multi-stemmed.

» No suckers should be allowed to grow below 50cm -1m of the tree's main stems.

» Strong upright suckers are unproductive and take a lot of energy away from the top productive part of the tree.

» All weak, thin and overcrowded branches should be removed.

» All branches that are dead or sick should be removed.

» The idea is to allow as much sun and air circulation into the tree without exposing the branches to too much sun which can cause sunburn.

» Pomegranates produce fruit on both older and the current year's wood. It is, however, better to promote fruiting on the older wood.

» It is best to roughly cut back about a third of the current year's growth and leave the other half unpruned.

» Try to keep the tree as low as possible as this makes picking and spraying for pests and diseases easier.

» Allow enough spaces in-between the main and secondary stems and branches and remove all crisscrossing ones.

Production and Harvesting

» Pomegranates are self pollinating but better yields are achieved with cross pollination. You can expect a better yield of about 30% if a different variety is planted close to another.

» Cross pollination is usually done by insects and humming birds. Bees are not normally the main pollinators.

» Pomegranates have got both male and hermaphroditic (self pollinating, fruit bearing)flowers which are normally next to each other. The male flowers will drop and the hermaphroditic flowers will continue to swell and develop into pomegranates.

» It is advisable to thin out developing fruit. Remove fruit so that they are roughly 30cm apart. Also remove fruit that are next to each other (twins).

» By thinning out the fruit, their size will greatly improve. Leaving too many fruit on can weaken the tree or branches can break off.

» Pomegranates take a long time before they start to ripen and most will ripen only from late autumn (normally from April).

» Pomegranates will ripen earlier and faster during hot and dry conditions.

» The fruit must be picked just before they are fully mature as they crack if overripe.

» Pomegranates are ready to be picked if they have good, strong colour and when tapped they will sound metallic.

» Do not pull off the fruit, instead cut it off with secateurs.

» The pomegranate is equal to the apple concerning storage life.

Problems

» When it comes to growing food crops there will be no escaping pests and diseases and this includes pomegranates. Mother Nature likes balance and there are pests and diseases for every single species of plant on this planet. It gets worse if large areas of the same crop is repeatedly planted.

» Large urban areas also create micro climates which are a perfect breeding and hiding place for all types of pests and diseases.

» When it comes to pomegranates, most problems occur in mass plantings associated with agricultural production. The home gardener that only plants one or two trees will seldom have the same scale of problems associated with commercial production.

» When planting large areas with pomegranates, good hygiene and regular inspections are advised as pomegranates are attacked by various pests and disease if left unchecked.

» Regular preventative spraying is highly recommended if you have more than one tree.

» Organic control can be done by spraying regularly with products that contain orange oil which control insects and some fungal diseases as well. You can also use Margeret Robert's or Ludwig's organic range of pesticides.

» When it comes to pomegranates, the main problem for the home gardener is false codling moth and fruit flies.
Important tips:

1.Hygiene:

» Good hygienic practices in and around your orchard is very important.
» Always remove spent, rotting and fallen fruit.
» Throw it away or bury it at least 1m deep in the soil (do not throw it on the compost heap as pests and diseases can survive there).
» Inspect your trees carefully at least every week and act immediately if any problems are noticed.
» Keep the area around the trees neat and weed free.
» It is very important to spray the whole tree as well as the surrounding soil with lime sulphur during the dormant period to kill any remaining insects or diseases that might still be around.

2.Using chemical or environmentally friendly products?

» As technology and cultural tecniques improve, the use of chemicals will hopefully be much less in future.
» Unfortunately, some pests and diseases (especially in the Agricultural sector)can only succesfully be controlled by chemicals to justify the economic viability and to keep up with demand.
» However, some pests can easily be controlled by other less harmful means.
» Always use chemicals only as a last resort.
» If chemicals are used responsibly and very sparingly, their use can greatly improve yields without doing too much damage to the environment or impact negatively on your health.

3.Using Chemicals

» Always use chemicals only as a last resort!
» Always be very careful when using chemical sprays!
» Read and follow all instructions carefully!
» Do not exceed the recommended strengths.
» Make sure about the maximum waiting period before fruit is safe for consumption.
» Always wash the fruit properly before consumption.
» Always supervise your gardener when using chemicals - be present at all times!
» Keep away/out of reach of children and animals.
» Always use gloves, wear shoes and be fully clothed.
» Take a shower or bath after working with chemicals.
» Avoid spraying chemicals on windy days.
» Try spraying early in the morning or late afternoon. Avoid spraying during the hottest part of the day.
» Avoid spraying when there is a good chance of rain. Most pesticides need at least 6 hours to absorp properly into the plant
» Destroy empty chemical containers in a safe and responsible way.
(do not re-use them for something else!)
» Wash out all spraying equipment properly after use.
» Adding a mixing agent greatly improves effectiveness.
» Spray the plant properly and thoroughly so that all parts are covered by the spray. If you do not spray properly pests and diseases can build up a resistance against chemicals hence losing its effectiveness.
» Stick to your spraying programme. Sometimes follow-up sprays are needed to get rid of pests for good.
» Act immediately on any problems as it gets more difficult to control large outbreaks.

4.Quarantine procedures

» If you are lucky enough or worked hard enough to keep your property free of certain pests and diseases which are easily achievable on remote farms and small holdings, the following quarantine procedures are advised.
» When purchasing new trees for planting make sure that the trees are free of pests and diseases.
» Check some plants for nematode infestation by washing off the soil and inspecting the roots carefully. Do this before bringing the plants onto your property. Nematodes are difficult to get rid of so don't at all purchase plants that are infected!
» Remove any fruit or flowers if any are present from your trees.
» When arriving on your property place all the plants together in an area as far way as possible from your orchards.
» Spray your plants with a Cypermethrin and Copper oxychloride mixture. Make sure that the soil is drenched as well and all leave surfaces on top and on the bottom is properly sprayed as well.
» Spray them 3 times at weekly intervals.
» If will be best to purchase and plant trees during winter time as they will be without any leaves or fruit and can then be sprayed with a limesulphur mixture and there will be a lower risk of possible infections.
» Quarantine procedures are useless in large urban areas as pests and diseases easily spread from one neigbourhood to another.

African Bollworm


(Helicoverpa armigera)

» Photo by: Gyorgy Csoka, Hungary Research Institute, Bugwood.org

» Although not a common or serious pest on pomegranates it can attack especially soft growing tips and leaves of pomegranate trees during summer time.

» Adult moths lay their eggs during night time on the tree. They quickly hatch and small larvae start to devour growing tips and leaves of the fig tree.

» The larvae are very variable in size and colour but all have a horizontal stripe on their side.

» The pest is easily controlled by spraying with Margaret Robert's Organic Insecticide or Ludwig's Organic Catapillar Control.

Aphids

» Aphids are tiny round sucking insects that attack almost every plant imaginable. They are normally green but sometimes also black, grey, brown or red.

» They are normally found on the soft, juicy growing tips and leaves of the plant especially during the spring months.

» Although not life-threating to the plant it causes slow, stunted growth.

» Control is easy and environmentally friendly products are very effective (like Margeret Robert's Organic Insect spray or orange oil).

Bacterial Blight

(Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Punicae)

» This is a serious disease concerning especially the  agricultural and commercial production of pomegranates.

» This bacteria is first noticed as small black spots on the leaves as well as the fruit of the pomegranate tree.

» These spots later enlarge to form brown lesions which causes the skin of the fruit to crack. Leaves start to die and fall off.

» Parts of the stems and branches can also start to decay and crack.

» The primary infection occurs on areas where the plant was damaged and the spores are spread further through rain splashes.

» It is very difficult to control this disease and prevention is better than cure.

» Always practice good hygiene in your orchards and always act immediately if the disease is noticed. Keep the area around the tree clean and free of weeds and fallen leaves.

» This disease is more a problem for agricultural production than for the home gardener as it attacks pomegranates specifically.

» The disease spreads rapidly during hot conditions and low humidity.

» If the plant is severely infected it should be cut back severely and sprayed regularly with bacterial killers. In some cases it will be better to destroy all infected plants if chemical control is not effective.

Black Heart Rot

» This disease is caused by the fungus "Alternaria solani".

» The fungus infests the flowers and grows inside the fruit as it develops.

» Often, the skin looks healthy but the inside will sound hollow and, when opened, it will be brown to black and rotted.

» In the majority causes wet conditions during the flowering stage are to be blamed.

» Prevention is better than the cure with this disease as nothing can be done once the fruit is infected.

» Good orchard hygiene is recommended. Prune away all dead branches, remove all spent fruit and keep the area clean around the plant.

» Spray the whole tree and the surrounding soil with limesulphur during the dormant period.

» Preventative spraying with Copper fungicide or Diathane during and after flowering is advised especially if wet conditions are experienced.

» Most of the time you will not know about the infection until the fruit is cut open.

Crown Rot

» The spores of this fungus are always present almost everywhere and attack most fruit crops.

» It is most troublesome just before or after harvesting and especially if the fruit are stored in warm, humid conditions.

» Normally, a small area would become darker and grey mould would start to appear and rapidly spread around the fruit.

» Fruit can also be attacked on the tree especially during hot, humid and rainy conditions with little or no sun.

» Preventative spraying with fungicides is recommended and harvested fruit can be treated with products to prevent problems during storage.

Nematodes (Eelworm)

» These are microscopic small worms that live in the soil. Most of them are beneficial or "good" as they prey on dead plant material or other insects but a few prey on live plant's roots.

» The plants can become stunted, grow very slowly or die back. The plant will have little fine roots, with a lot of dead, stumpy roots and some roots will have knots on them(swollen galls).

» If the roots are cut open dark, round dead pathes can sometimes also be noticed.

» Preventive care is better than the cure. It is difficult controlling this disease. It is more of a problem in the agricultural sector due to monocultures. It is also more serious and wide spread in dryish sandy to slightly rocky soils.

» Chemical Control is possible but extreme care should be taken when using the pesticides.

» You can also plant nematode repellent plants like Marigolds in areas with heavy infestations. Heavy mulching and adding a lot of organic matter such as manure or compost also helps to reduce the number of harmful nematodes in the soil.

» If you have eelworm infested soil, try not to plant plants prone to this pest for at least 6 years. There is a lot of information available on the internet about which plants you can use.

» There are not yet any varieties of pomegranates which are resistant to nematodes.

» If you do have eelworms in your soil, try planting your pomegranates into large pots and purchase good quality bark-based potting soil.

False Codling Moth

Photo by: Marja van der Straten, NVWA Plant Protection Services

(Thaumatotibia leucotreta)

» This is considered to be one of the most important pests when it comes to pomegranate production.

» Adults moths are long and brown and lay their eggs onto the young developing fruit or young flowers.

» The eggs hatch and larvae tunnel their way into the fruit, eating it from the inside out.

» Often, small black holes (entry points) can be seen where the moth penetrated the skin to lay her eggs.

» Up to 5 generations can be produced during warm seasons.

» This pest is indigenous to Southern Africa and prevention is better than cure.

» It is often a problem in large scale plantings.

» It is more serious in areas with very hot summers and mild winters. Very cold winters can wipe out the pest.

» The pupa stage can survive in the soil during winter time so it is very important to remove and destroy all infected fruit as soon as possible to prevent big populations of building up.

» It attacks various other crops as well.

» Regular preventative spraying should control this pest.

Flat Mites

(Brevipalpus lewisi)

» These are very small sucking insects that causes damage mainly to the skin of the fruit.

» The skin becomes leathery with brown patches and almost look like crocodile skin.

» Preventative spraying should control this pest.

» Easy to identify with typical "crocodile" skin.

Frost

» Pomegranates are remarkably hardy and they tolerate a good deal of frost.

» Most pomegranates can withstand moderate frosts (-5°C) quite well but trouble starts when they are exposed to prolonged severe frosts of -10°C or lower.

» South Africa's climate varies between USA Zones 8-10. We use the following terminology to classify frost hardiness:
- Tender: below 1°C (Light frost)
- Semi-hardy: below -3°C (Moderate frost)
- Hardy: below -5°C (Heavy frost)
- Very Hardy: below -10°C (Severe frost)
(The above indicates at which minimum temperature the plant will sustain noticeable frost damage).

» Frost is not generally a factor in suburban areas due to a micro climate that is created. It is the more exposed areas like farms, small holdings and low lying river valley properties that have the biggest problem with frost.

» The following areas experience severe frost during winter and special care should be taken in choosing the correct varieties: Far Southern Gauteng, Western Mpumalanga, Free State and parts of the Northwest Province.

» Winters are often underestimated in these areas and this is the reason why these regions mainly consist of grasslands.

» Black frost is the biggest challenge in these areas. Black frost occurs when all the air freezes from ground level up into the atmosphere. It worsens in the presence of wind.

» Black frost normally occurs 1 or 2 days after very large cold fronts have passed over inland areas.

» Black frost normally does not cause the formation of any ice crystals on plants but literally "dry freezes" the whole plant.

» Snow rarely falls on the inland areas of South Africa with the exception of the high mountainous areas. Snow is generally not a problem for pomegranates but the trouble starts after the snow has melted and black frost sets in.
There are actually some tricks that you can do if you live in these areas to lessen the impact of frost.
1. Choose pomegranate varieties that are more frost hardy, such as "Kazake, Salavatski or Old Cape"

2. Pomegranates should be hardened off(prepared) before winter arrives. This is done by slowly stressing the tree so that growth slows and hardens. The application of 2.3.4. fertilizer during the growing season will help to build stronger, more compact growth. Fertilizers high in nitrogen causes rapid but weak growth that is more easily damaged by frost. Growth is also further slowed down by slowly reducing the amount of watering Hardening off should start from February in very cold areas.

3. Incorrect watering can play a major role when it comes to frost damage. It is best to keep the plant as dry as possible during the winter season. No water should be administered at the approach of a major cold front. Watering, if necessary, should be done during the milder warmer periods.

4. Plant your pomegranates in a protected spot. The best spot will be against a warm, sunny, north facing wall or where it is protected from freezing winds.

5. Give your tree protection by providing a thick layer of mulch around the stem and wrapping the rest of the tree with Frost Cover. Frost cover is a poly woven material that lets light and air movement trough. The 30 gram type can give up to 3°C of protection per layer. So at least 3 layers are recommended that will give up to 9°C of protection. You can leave the cover on for the rest of winter.

6. Plant your pomegranates in pots and move them to protected areas during winter. This is a common practice in the colder far Northern Hemisphere countries.

7.Plant your pomegranates in polytunnels. This is a great way to produce larger quantities of pomegranates. You don't need to heat these tunnels as they will give sufficient protection in our area. Unfortunately, care should be taken as increased humidity and less light creates certain problems with pomegranate production.

8. Bigger and older, more established pomegranates trees will take more frost. Even if they die back a little they will recover quickly in spring.

9.Pomegranate trees that get frosted back into the ground will re-grow again in spring. Normally the plants become hardier against frost every year. The stems will become thicker and the plants will eventually grow taller.

10.Keep pruning lightly .Bushy more compact plants will tolerate more frost.

Fruit & Leaf Spot

» This is a fungal disease that causes small black spots on the leaves that later turn yellow and fall off.

» The fruit also develops small irregular black spots which later coalesce into bigger spots.

» It is only a problem during hot, very wet and humid conditions.

» It can easily be controlled by preventative spraying.

» Badly infected fruit should be collected and destroyed.

Fruit Fly (Various species)

» The female fruit fly

» Fruit flies can sometimes attack pomegranates especially in areas with high concentrations of other fruit trees.

» Younger developing fruit are normally targeted.

» The use of trap bait stations is advised or preventative spraying with pesticides.

» Spraying should start just after flowers have been pollinated.

» Fruit flies attack most fruit-bearing crops.

» All infected fruit should be collected and destroyed to prevent further infestations.

How to make your own fruit fly trap:

» You can use old 2lt soft drink bottles for this.
» Punch about 5 holes about 5mm in size around the top part of the bottle.
» Fill the bottle with a mixture of the following:
- two tablespoons of sugar/honey/syrup.
- one tablespoon of Protek Fly Bait.
- 500ml of clean water.
» It is important to screw the cap back on after filling the bottle.
» Replace the mixture every two weeks.
» Hang the bottles close to your trees (about one bottle for every 5 trees).

Mealybugs

» Photo by: U.S.A National Collection of Scale Insects

» These are unarmored scale insects and they secrete a white powdery wax layer to protect themselves with.

» They appear powdery white from afar and are often mistaken as a fungal disease.

» They suck out the sap of the plant's leaves and younger stems thus causing severe stunted growth.

» Sometimes they are found on the fruit as well.

» Often a black sooty mold can be noticed on the leaves.

» If left unchecked, they multiply rapidly especially during humid and hot weather.

» They are easily controlled by most environmentally friendly products like Margeret Robert's organic insecticide.

No Flowering or Fruiting

» It is normal for young pomegranates not flower or fruit for the first three years.

» Most come into full production after about 5 years.

» Sometimes however flower of fruit production is very poor and there might be a few reasons why.

Here follows a check list of some of the reasons:

» Some varieties will take longer than others. The "Wonderful" variety bears from a very young age (about two years)
» Most of the ornamental flowering varieties will not develop any fruit and only produce flowers.
» Excessive pruning will remove fruit bearing branches and promote strong vegative growth at the expense of fruiting.
» To much Nitrogen or overfeeding can also cause excessive growth at the expense of flowering and fruiting.
» Plants that are growing to strongly vegetatively should be starved.
» Soils poor in phosporus and potasium will cause poor fruit setting. Apply 2.3.4 fertilizer monthly for increased yields.
» An annual application of manure is also recommended to improve the soil condition as well as to replenish micro elements.
» Poorly drained soils cause poor growth and fruiting.
» Poor pollination due to the absence of pollinating insects.
» Better yields are also expected when planting different varieties together although pomegranates are self pollinating
» Old neglected trees will produce poor crops and rejuvenation pruning and feeding is recommended.
» Severe frost can kill older wood which bears fruit bearing branches.
» Plants exposed to severe drought or overly wet conditions will also produce poorly.

Leaf Rolling Myte

» Aceria granati

» Here, the typical curling of leaves can be seen.

» These very tiny insects suck out the sap of especially the younger leaves and then causes them the curl as the develop.

» If this pest is noticed you should act as quickly as possible as it spreads quickly and can stunt the growth of the whole tree.

» Regular follow up sprays with systemic pesticide should get rid of the infestation but please take note of the minimum withholding period before harvesting can take place.

Red Spider Mites

» Photo by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University.

» These are very small spider like insects that suck out sap from the leaves and causes small, white dots on the surface of the leaves. Sometimes small webs can also be seen.

» This pest is normally only a problem in tunnels, under shade nets, patios and stoeps, areas with poor air circulation or if plants are planted very close to each other.

» Red spider infestations are at their worst during very hot and dry weather conditions.

» There are various products available for the control of the pest.

Root and Stem Rot

» Phytopthora sp.

» This fungal disease is only a problem in poorly drained soils or during periods of excessive rain.

» The fungus attacks the roots and bark of the plants causing them to rot and die back.

» The leaves will start to wilt, turn yellow and fall off causing the whole plant to die back.

» It is also sometimes a problem in nurseries with high concentrations of plants coupled with high humidity and wet soil conditions.

» Prevention is better than cure. Improve drainage of the soil and reduce watering.

» Infected plants should be cut back severely and treated with fungicides.

Scale (Various species)

» Photo by: The U.S.A. National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive

» Scale is normally flat or half round armoured insects that suck out the sap of stems and branches of the plant.

» In severe cases, even the fruit itself is attacked.

» They normally attack weak or stressed plants.

» If kept unchecked they can kill the whole tree.

» It is easily controlled by environmentally friendly oil based pesticides. Regular and follow up sprays are advised to get rid of the pest for good.

Splitting

» Splitting is a common problem, especially during the ripening stage of the pomegranate fruit.

» Overripe pomegranates also tend to split.

» The main cause is very dry, hot conditions followed by very wet and humid conditions causing the fruit to swell too quickly and crack open.

» Irregular watering is another main cause, especially if the plants are heavily watered after they have been kept bone dry for a long time. Consistent watering is the key. Please read more in the Watering section.

» If you live in areas with excessive summer rainfall, it will be best to consider varieties which are resistant to splitting like "Kazake" or "Salavatski".

Stemborer

» Many stemborer species are indigenous to Africa and will surely attack pomegranate trees as they have relatively soft wood.

» Typical signs of infestation will be branches that break off easily, leaves yellowing and falling off or branches dying back. Sometimes pieces of bark can also come loose.

Control:
» With this disease prevention is better than cure!

» Heavily infested trees should rather be destroyed and the wood must be burned or completely removed from the property.

» It is very important to inspect your trees regularly and at the first sign of infestation treatment should immediately be started.

» If you live in an area prone to this pest, monthly preventative spraying should be done. You will have spray for false codling moth anyway so you can use the same insecticide for both.

Environmentally friendly control is difficult but achievable:
» For small infestations, long pieces of wire can be pushed down into the tunnels thus killing the larvae.

» With especially large orchards, good hygiene is important by keeping the surrounding soil clean and free of weeds. It is also important to remove all dead pieces of wood and bark where grubs can live in or any dead trees or shrubs found nearby.

» It is very important to do regular inspections and to act immediately if any larvae or beetles are noticed.

Chemically dealing with infestations:
» If you already have an infestation it is unfortunately a total different story. The problem is that the fat white grubs(larvae) are hiding inside the tunnels that they have eaten open for themselves. The only way to destroy them is by injecting insecticide into these tunnels or killing them by pushing a wire into these tunnels. This is unfortunately not very effective, very time consuming and only recommended for light infestations and small trees.

» The best treatment is to use a systemic insecticide. Systemic means that the poison is taken up by the cells and tissue of the plant. Remember, most insecticides are contact based. The advantage to these insecticides is that it will spread throughout the plant and reach in all the places were they are hiding where contact insecticides can't. Another advantage is that the plant will be protected for longer as it can't be washed off by the rain as it is taken up into the cells. Also, it is easy to treat big trees as the poison can be taken up by the roots by watering the base of the plant with the poison.

» VERY IMPORTANT: This insecticide is like "Antibiotics" and should be used properly otherwise the insects can build up a resistance against it. The bigger the tree the more dosages should be given. For instance a 5 year old tree will need at least 25lt of mix ,weekly for a month and this can only be given when there is sap flow that is during the growing season(not when dormant). I can't stress this enough: it is useless giving a big tree small quantities of poison, especially if only one dosage is given.

» It is best to drench the soil around the tree with the systemic insecticide. The plant should be drenched and, in severe cases, also sprayed if possible. Remember to do 3 follow up treatments at weekly intervals. A rough guide is to give 5lt of mix per every year of the age of the tree with a maximum of 50lt (for very large trees).

» Consult your nearest Garden Centre on advice and recommendations on which systemic products to use.

» The tree will be protected against infestation for up to 6 months after the 4 applications and should wipe out the infestation. There after you should switch back to preventative spraying.

ONE WARNING: DO NOT CONSUME ANY OF THE POMEGRANATES DURING TREATMENT. SYSTEMIC POISON TAKES A LONG TIME TO BE WORKED OUT OF THE PLANT'S SYSTEM. A PERIOD OF AT LEAST 3 MONTHS SHOULD BE GIVEN! PLEASE READ THE INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE PROCEEDING FURTHER.

Sunburn

» Sunburn damage is caused by intense sunlight and is more common on younger trees which has less leaf cover to protect the fruit.

» Large black spots appear on the top part of the fruit exposed to direct sunlight. It normally does not affect the quality of the arils(fleshy seeds) inside the fruit but makes the fruit unmarketable.

» This problem can be solved by covering the fruit with white bags, covering the orchard with netting and implementing pruning techniques to promote more leaf coverage.

Termites

» Pomegranates thrives hot, dry climates and in South Africa termites are often found in these areas and thus will gladly live on these trees.

» Termites feed on the wood and bark of the tree causing decay and rotting of the branches and main stem.

» Consult you nearest Garden Centre for recommendations on which product to use.

Thrips

» Thysanoptera species

» Top Image : Damage on fruit due to thrips.

» These are very small, minute slender sucking insects that attacks all parts of the plant.

» The leaves might curl and the growing tips turn brown.

» The flowers and fruit will develop brown, rough scars.

» When first noticed control should be initiated immediately as the pest can spread quickly.

» Regular preventative spraying should keep this pest away but in case of severe infestations systemic pesticides should be used.

» When using systemic pesticides, care should be taken as this is a systemic poison and the proper withholding time before harvesting the fruit should be taken into account.

Weevils

» Weevils come in many shapes and colours but most have distinctive long snouts.

» Weevils are a type of beetle that attack and eat the more tender new growth of the tree.

» It causes stunted growth and damage to the growing tips.

» It can be controlled with preventative spraying.

White Fly

» White flies are very tiny and are always found on the underside of leaves in huge numbers.

» These are tiny white insects noticeable when flying in big swarms around the tree especially when disturbed.

» The adult flies lay their eggs on the underside of the leaves.

» The small nymphs, as well as the adults, suck out the sap of the leaves causing them to yellow and drop.

» The leaves are often covered with a sticky, black sooty mold.

» Control should immediately be initiated as they multiply very quickly and attack other plants as well.

» It is very important to do the follow up treatments with the chemical spray that you are using as all the generations and stages of the white fly must be wiped out to get rid of the pest.

» Consult you nearest Garden Centre on recommendations on which pesticide product that should be used.

» White flies are normally a problem during hot and dry conditions and in areas with poor air circulation. It is often a problem on patios, stoeps, conservatories and polytunnels especially if plants are overcrowded.

» Preventative spraying during the dormant period is highly recommended to destroy any eggs or nymphs that might cause new infestations during the growing season.

Growing in Pots

» Pomegranates adapt very well to pots and containers but you cannot expect the same quality or production as the ones grown in soil.

» Fruit will also be smaller if grown in containers but it will still be worth your while .

» Pomegranates do not have strong, invasive roots and this is also a great advantage as they will need very little root pruning in pots.

» Pomegranates can also look very ornamental in pots and enhance the Tuscan or Mediterranean styled look.

» They can easily be trained into small trees or standards.

Choosing The Right Pot

» These Tuscan style pots will be perfect for pomegranates as they are wide on top and tapers down to the bottom.

» Pomegranates will happily adapt in any size pot but for the best fruit production the bigger the pot the better.

» A pot with a dimension of at least 50cm x 50cm x 50cm is recommended.

» Pots that have wide tops and slightly tapers to the bottom are preferred as this makes repotting or root pruning(if necessary) much easier.

» Pomegranates can also be grown in large, cheap plastic containers or bags if not used for ornamental purposes.

» It is important that all containers and pots have large and plenty of drainage holes at the bottom.

Soil

» Culterra's Potting soil is perfect for usage when growing pomegranates in pots.

» When growing pomegranates in containers I prefer using a good quality bark-based potting soil.

» Using ordinary garden soil is a bad idea as it becomes hard as brick in pots and it drains poorly. It also makes pots very heavy and makes moving it around very difficult. Heavy garden soil can also crack certain types of pots.

» Bark-based potting soil will drain and dry out quickly but this is exactly what we want with pomegranates.

» Before filling the pot with soil always provide a thick layer of gravel or small pebbles at the bottom of the container to improve drainage.

» Mix some bonemeal (1 coffee mug full) and Bioganic fertilizer (2 coffee mugs full) per one bag of potting soil.

» It is very important to firmly compact the potting soil from the bottom up and around the rootball of the pomegranate tree.

» Flood the whole pot with water until the water comes out of the bottom of the pot. This will help to remove air pockets and also to settle the soil in the pot.

Watering and Feeding

» Pomegranates in pots will need more watering and feeding than their counterparts in the ground.

» Remember, any plant in a pot is like a pet! They are completely dependent on you for their survival as their roots are caged up and can't go and look for their own food or water.

» Pomegranates in pots should never be allowed to dry out completely and should always be kept moist.

» Daily watering might be necessary during very hot and dry mid summer days but careful monitoring is advised.

» Pomegranates in pots should be fed monthly (from September until February) with Wonder 2.3.4 fertilizer and Bioganic fertilizer. A rough estimate is about one tablespoon of 2.3.4 and two handfuls of Bioganic fertilizer for a pot of 50cm x 50cm x 50cm.

» Always apply fertilizers at least 30cm away from the main stem of the plant or at the furthest edge of the pot.

Maintenance

» Pomegranates in pots should only be pruned lightly as they will grow slower.

» The standard(lollipop) look will be the best shape for pots but you can also keep them short and bushy depending on your space.

» Root pruning is seldom needed but very old plants might benefit from this every few years. It is done by removing the plant from the pot and cutting the bottom third part of the root ball back and replanting it back into the pot. This is done only during the dormant period (June to July).

» Once a year the top 10cm of soil should be carefully removed and replaced with a mixture of compost, bonemeal and Bioganic fertilizer. This should be done in August and will replenish the soil for the following growing season.

Varieties For Pots

» Most varieties will adapt nicely to containers.

» The dwarf pomegranate called "Nana" is great for small containers as it only grows to roughly 1m x 1m.

» "Eight Ball" is an ornamental, compact growing variety and adopts well to containers.

» Old Cape" does exceptionally well in containers and always rewards you with fruit.

Pomegranate Database

» The database contains all the varieties of pomegranates that we have currently growing in our test orchards

» The database will regularly be updated and enlarged.

» We regret but none of these varieties are currently available except the ones listed under Available Varieties

» All the information is subject to the terms and conditions stated in the Indemnity section as per landing page.

» All-information and evaluations are based on growing conditions in the far Southern Gauteng Province area where we are situated. (Similar to USA Zone 8)

» Please note that fruit(colour, size, taste) can vary considerably from one area to the next as local climatic conditions play a very big role in their development. The colour of photographs can also be deceiving or variable in some cases.

» It is very difficult to identify and to distinguish between the different varieties of pomegranates.

» Just as Figs, some pomegranate varieties are known by many different names in different parts of the world that leads to further confusion.

Choosing a Variety

» There are well over 1000 varieties of pomegranates known to exist today.

» South Africa only has a few dozen varieties available but luckily they are some of the better ones.

» When it come to agricultural and commercial production I STRONGLY suggest you do further research and contact companies or organizations that specialize in this field. A few trees grown in a suburban garden is totally different to hundreds of trees grown in the open in agricultural plantings! Please see the Contacts section.

» It is very important for commercial farmers to make the right choice as this is a long-term investment. Please note that some varieties are not commercially viable for areas outside the Western Cape but some of them, however, will still give a good crop for the home gardener with the right care and treatment.

» Pomegranates are divided into three main groups: Hard seeded, semi-hard seeded and soft seeded and then further classified as being sour, sweet-sour or sweet.

When choosing a variety please consider the following:

What kind of climate do you have?

» The most important factor to consider when choosing a variety is climate.

» Severe frost and high summer rainfall and humidity is the two most limiting factors when it comes to pomegranates.

» There are several pomegranates varieties that will tolerate these conditions well and others less so.

What kind of taste do you like?

» Pomegranates are either sour, sweet-sour or sweet when fully ripe.

What purpose is it for?

» Do you want to plant pomegranates for juicing, eating, culinary or decorative purposes.

» Some pomegranates are better for juicing whilst others are for eating and culinary purposes.

» Soft seeded varieties are better for eating but are not as hardy as the hard-seeded varieties.

Do you want to plant it in a container?

» Some varieties will perform better than others in containers.

» Pomegranates can be grown in containers in areas where the soil conditions or local climate does not suit them.

What fruit colour do you prefer?

» The colour of skin can range from greenish, cream, orange to red.

» The arils (fleshy seeds) range from clear, cream, pink, orange, red, purple to black.

Useful Lists

» These lists are to be used as a rough guide only and are subject to terms as per Indemnity.

» Commercial farmers should consult with agricultural experts first and do further research before choosing a variety for mass planting.

According to the latest research done by Pomasa in 2020, these are the most commercially planted cultivars in South Africa:
1. Wonderful (almost 76% of all orchards in South Africa)
2. Acco (9%)
3. Baghwa (1%)
4. Herskowitz (9%)
5. Angel Red (2%)
6. Emek (1%)

Most exported cultivars in South Africa:
1. Wonderful (74%)
2. Herskowitz (12%)
3. Acco (13%)
4. Other (1%)

Future potential commercial varieties:
(But further evaluation and research is needed)
| Parfianka
| Cranberry
| Sirenevyi
| Desertayi

Commercial varieties in U.S.A.

Granada, Early Foothill, Early Wonderful and Wonderful

Commercial varieties in Europe

Mollar de Elche, Early Mollar,Valenciana.

Commercial varieties in India

Ganesh, Mridula, Alandi, Patha, Spanish Ruby, Kandahar and Baghwa.

Commercial varieties in Turkey

Hicaznar, Aka-nar and Kizi-anar

Commercial varieties in Afghanistan

Kandahar( White, red and black variations)

Commercial varieties in Israel

Wonderful, Asmar, Ras-el-Baghil, Red Lufani, Malissi

Database

Acknowledgements

I would like to sincerely thank the following people and organizations as without their help this site would not have been accomplished:

1. Keith Wilson a.k.a. "The Fig Man" one of South Africa's leading authorities on fig production as well as other crops like pomegranates, cherries etc. Thank you for your contribution to the fruit industry. This humble guy deserves a lot more recognition for his experience and work he has put into the industry. He provided a lot of help with the correct identification of certain pomegranate varieties, cuttings , advice and recommendations etc.

2. Dr G.M. Levin and his book "Pomegranate" for all his research on pomegranates and contributions of new varieties.

3. Richard Ashton, Barbara Baer and David Silverstein for their book "The Incredible Pomegranate" and for all the work they have done to promote the fruit.

4. To my business partners for supporting and "tolerating" this whole venture that took a lot of time, effort and money.

5. To "POMASA"(Pomegranate Association of South Africa) for the information on their webpage.

6. The internet community and everybody that puts information on the World Wide Web and thus sharing information.

7. Thank you to "Bunnypants Design Studio" for your professionalism and dedication in designing this website.

8. Lastly but most importantly thank you to the Universe, the Creator, the Source for senses to experience the wonderful and mystical taste of fruits like pomegranates and for their existence.

Recommended Books

"The Incredible Pomegranate" by Richard Ashton with Barbara Baer and David Silverstein

For me, the best all round book about pomegranates that will be understandable to the general public. Highly recommended and a must for any pomegranate fanatic. There are detailed descriptions about many varieties, how to grow and propogate pomegranates. You can order this on amazon.com

"Pomegrante" by G.M. Levin, Ph.D.

World renowed for his research and large collection of pomegranates at the "Garrygala" Agricultural Research Station in Turkmenistan. This is an excellent book for all technical data about the genus Punica granatum and there are useful lists and information about the best varieties that were selected at the station. Can be ordered on amazon.com

 

 

 

Website and Links

Pomasa - www.sapomegranate.co.za

This is the official site of the South African Pomegranate Growers Association and is highly recommended, especially for farmers or persons interested in the commercial and agricultural production of pomegranates.

 

Useful Contacts

Sapo Trust - www.saplant.co.za

This organization promotes the variety development and commercialisation of existing and new fruit varieties. They specialize in the Agricultural sector by assisting and supplying commercial farmers in South Africa with various services.

Agricultural research council - www.arc.agric.za

A large government organisation involved with the research and improvement of various agricultural food crops and farming animals in the agricultural sector. They also have a large database on useful information covering various topics of farming with food and animal crops.

Kobus Botha - Weather Photos of Southern Africa -www.weatherphotos.co.za

This is an excellent and very comprehensive site about South African weather conditions. Also hosts short, medium and long range forecasts, soil moisture conditions, etc.

Technical and Agricultural

For technical & agricutural advice for application to commercial production, you can contact one of the following organizations: (Please note that consultation fees may be charged).


» Keith Wilson (Colorsfruit) Email: figman@vodamail.co.za


» Pomasa: www.sapomegranate.co.za


» Western Cape Department of Agriculturewww.elsenburg.com


» Sapo Trustwww.saplant.co.za


» Citrogoldwww.citrogold.co.za


» Stargrowwww.stargrow.co.za


» Alternafruitwww.alternafruit.co.za

 

» Please see Stockists section to find out where your nearest supplier is located.

» Insist on buying the quality “Giving Trees” brand.

» We spend a lot of time and effort to ensure that you receive quality genetics and that plants are true to type.

» The “Giving Trees” logo is a registered Trademark. Our tags (labels) and other information are subject to copyright and are only to be used on plants grown by us (please report any misuse of our logo, tags or any other copyright infringement)

» Each individual plant grown by Giving Trees should have its own distinctive label. Some businesses try to sell other suppliers plants with the help of Giving Trees logo, information tags or photos. This practice is unlawful and a criminal offence under the copyright law.

» We will not be held responsible for any damages, liabilities or any other problems that might occur with these plants that are illegally sold under the “Giving Trees” logo.

» All information are subject to terms and conditions stated in Indemnity Clause as per our landing page.

(for more detailed information about each variety, please see Pomagranate Database)

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